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    Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение

    высшего образования

    «ОМСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ»

    Кафедра «Иностранные языки»

    ЗАЧЕТНАЯ РАБОТА

    по дисциплине «Иностранный язык»

    «History, Brass and Precious Мetals»

    Перевод

    Выполнил:

    Студент группы М-182

    Курносенко М.С.

    Проверил:

    ст. преподаватель

    Гросс М.А.

    Омск 2020

    BRASS

    While some zinc appears in bronzes dating from the Bronze Age, this was almost certainly an accidental inclusion, although it may foreshadow the complex ternary alloys of the early Iron Age, in which substantial amounts of zinc as well as tin may be found. Brass, as an alloy of copper and zinc without tin, did not appear in Egypt until about 30 bce, but after this it was rapidly adopted throughout the Roman world, for example, for currency.

    PRECIOUS METALS

    Bronze, iron, and brass were, then, the metallic materials on which successive peoples built their civilizations and of which they made their implements for both war and peace. In addition, by 500 bce, rich lead-bearing silver mines had opened in Greece. Reaching depths of several hundred metres, these mines were vented by drafts provided by fires lit at the bottom of the shafts. Ores were hand-sorted, crushed, and washed with streams of water to separate valuable minerals from the barren, lighter materials.

    Lead was removed from the silver by cupellation, a process of great antiquity in which the alloy was melted in a shallow porous clay or bone-ash receptacle called a cupel. A stream of air over the molten mass preferentially oxidized the lead. Its oxide was removed partially by skimming the molten surface; the remainder was absorbed into the porous cupel. Silver metal and any gold were retained on the cupel. The lead from the skimmings and discarded cupels was recovered as metal upon heating with charcoal.

    Native gold itself often contained quite considerable quantities of silver. These silver-gold alloys, known as electrum, may be separated in a number of ways, but presumably the earliest was by heating in a crucible with common salt. In time and with repetitive treatments, the silver was converted into silver chloride, which passed into the molten slag, leaving a purified gold. Cupellation was also employed to remove from the gold such contaminates as copper, tin, and lead. Gold, silver, and lead were used for artistic and religious purposes, personal adornment, household utensils, and equipment for the chase.

    BRASS

    Лануть

    While some zinc appears in bronzes dating from the Bronze Age, this was almost certainly an accidental inclusion, although it may foreshadow the complex ternary alloys of the early Iron Age, in which substantial amounts of zinc as well as tin may be found.

    Хотя некоторое количество цинка появляется в бронзе, датируемой бронзовым веком, это почти наверняка было случайностью, хотя это может предвещать сложные тройные сплавы раннего железного века, в которых могут быть обнаружены значительные количества как цинка, так и олова.

    Brass, as an alloy of copper and zinc without tin, did not appear in Egypt until about 30 bce, but after this it was rapidly adopted throughout the Roman world, for example, for currency.


    Латунь, как сплав меди и цинка без олова, появился в Египте лишь примерно до 30 г. до н. е, но после этого его быстро приняли во всем римском мире, например, за валюту.

    PRECIOUS METALS




    Bronze, iron, and brass were, then, the metallic materials on which successive peoples built their civilizations and of which they made their implements for both war and peace.

    Бронза, железо и латунь были, металлическими материалами, на которых сменяющие друг друга народы строили свои цивилизации и из которых они изготавливали свои орудия как для войны, так и для мира.

    In addition, by 500 bce, rich lead-bearing silver mines had opened in Greece.

    Кроме того, к 500 г. до н.э. в Греции открылись богатые свинцовые серебряные рудники.

    Reaching depths of several hundred metres, these mines were vented by drafts provided by fires lit at the bottom of the shafts.

    Достигнув глубины в несколько сотен метров, вентиляция в этих шахтах, осуществлялась с помощью факелов, зажженных на дне шахт.

    Ores were hand-sorted, crushed, and washed with streams of water to separate valuable minerals from the barren, lighter materials.


    Руды сортировали вручную, дробили и промывали струями воды, чтобы отделить ценные минералы от бесплодных, более легких материалов.

    Lead was removed from the silver by cupellation, a process of great antiquity in which the alloy was melted in a shallow porous clay or bone-ash receptacle called a cupel.

    Свинец был удален из серебра с помощью купелирования, древнего процесса, в котором сплав плавился в мелко пористой глиняной или костяной пепельнице, называемой купелью.

    A stream of air over the molten mass preferentially oxidized the lead.

    Поток воздуха над расплавленной массой преимущественно окисляет свинец.

    Its oxide was removed partially by skimming the molten surface; the remainder was absorbed into the porous cupel.

    Его оксид был частично удален путем обезжиривания расплавленной поверхности; остаток впитывался в пористую чашку.

    Silver metal and any gold were retained on the cupel.

    Серебряный металл и любое золото были сохранены на чаше.

    The lead from the skimmings and discarded cupels was recovered as metal upon heating with charcoal.


    Свинец из скиммингов и выброшенных кубиков извлекали в виде металла при нагревании с древесным углем.

    Native gold itself often contained quite considerable quantities of silver.

    Само добываемое золото часто содержало довольно много серебра.

    These silver-gold alloys, known as electrum, may be separated in a number of ways, but presumably the earliest was by heating in a crucible with common salt.

    Эти серебряно-золотые сплавы, известные как электрум, могут быть разделены несколькими способами, но, по-видимому, самым ранним был нагрев в тигле с обычной солью.

    In time and with repetitive treatments, the silver was converted into silver chloride, which passed into the molten slag, leaving a purified gold.

    Со временем и при повторяющихся обработках серебро превращалось в хлорид серебра, который переходил в расплавленный шлак, оставляя очищенное золото.

    Cupellation was also employed to remove from the gold such contaminates as copper, tin, and lead

    Купелляция также использовалась для удаления из золота таких загрязнений, как медь, олово и свинец.

    Gold, silver, and lead were used for artistic and religious purposes, personal adornment, household utensils, and equipment for the chase.


    Золото, серебро и свинец использовались для художественных и религиозных целей, личных украшений, домашней утвари и оборудования для погони.


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