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Іменник (the noun)


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ІМЕННИК (THE NOUN)
Іменник – це самостійна частина мови, що означає предмет. Іменники в англійській мові, як і в українській, за своїм складом бувають прості, похідні та складні (складені).
Прості іменники не мають у своєму складі ні префіксів, ні суфіксів: son - син, aunt - тітка, niece - племінниця, spouse – подружжя (чоловік або дружина).
Похідні іменники характеризуються наявністю префіксів та / або суфіксів: grandmother - бабуся, toddler – дитина, яка тільки починає ходити, consultant – консультант, forearm – передпліччя.
Для іменників найхарактернішими є суфікси:


-er


-or
-ee

-ment
-ness
-(a)tion, (i)tion або sion

-dom
-hood
-ship
-ance, ence
-ity
-ing

-ist


утворює 1) іменники, що описують род заняття

2) іменники, що описують функції речей

утворює іменники, що описують чиєсь заняття

утворює іменник, який описує, що робить людина або ким вона є

утворює абстрактні іменники
утворює абстрактні іменники
утворює абстрактні іменники

утворює абстрактні іменники
утворює абстрактні іменники
утворює абстрактні іменники
утворює абстрактні іменники

утворює абстрактні іменники
утворює іменники, що описують екземпляр, приклад або дію

утворює іменники, що виражають вірування або род заняття

employ – employer, teach – teacher, bake - baker

cook – cooker, grate – grater, open (tins) – tin-opener

act – actor, sail – sailor, operate – operator, invest - investor

employ – employee, pay – payee,

interview – interviewee
achieve – achievement, employ – employment

good – goodness, sad – sadness, happy – happiness

form – formation, educate – education, occupy – occupation, invent – invention, pollute – pollution, omit – omission, profess – profession

free – freedom, wise – wisdom
brother – brotherhood, neighbour – neighbourhood

friend – friendship, champion – championship

admit – admittance, emerge – emergence
equal – equality, flexible - flexibility

build – building, draw - drawing

artist, typist, violinist, journalist, Buddhist


Деякі іменники можуть утворюватись за допомогою префіксів. Найбільш уживаними є такі префікси:


a-

anti- counter- de-

dis-

en-

fore-

hyper-

il-

im-

in-

inter-

ir-

mis-

non-

over-

post-

pre-

sub-

super-

un- under-

asymmetry, asynchrony

antimatter, antiparticle

counterattack, countercurrent

decentralization, decomposition

disagreement, displacement

enclosure, enlargement

forecast, foreground

hypermarket, hypersensitivity

illegality, illegibility

imperfection, impossibility

inaccuracy, independence

interaction, interrelation

irregularity, irresponsibility

miscalculation, misinformation

non- nonsense, non-smoker

overtime, overwork

postgraduate

precondition, preview

subdivision, subsection

superconductor, supervision

unbalance, unrest

underestimate, understatement


Exercise 1. Use the underlined words to form nouns:
1) s/he takes photographs, 2) s/he plays the guitar, 3) it washes dishes, 4) the state of being able to do something, 5) the relationship you have with your friend, 6) he acts in films and plays, 7) the thing we make when we build, 8) the quality of being important, 9)the period when you are a child, 10) the feeling of being excited, 11) the state of being happy, 12) knowledge you get when you are educated, 13) the act of dividing something, 14) entering a place, or the cost of entering, when you are admitted, 15) the thing we open tins with, 16) s/he is forced to seek refuge in a new country, 17) something we do when we are active, 18) the state or fact of being great.
Exercise 2. Make nouns from the following words:
employ, post, except, expand, accept, assume, develop, combine, drive, inspire, suspect, exhaust, translate, injure, refer, apologize, examine, pollute, judge, use, lonely, reluctant, excellent, intelligent, accurate, excited, fragile, regular, stupid, isolate.
Exercise 3. Convert verbs and adjectives into nouns making all necessary changes:


  1. The passengers were happy. – The happinessof the passengers was obvious.

  2. The aircraft was safe.

  3. Our plane arrived at noon.

  4. The plane landed without any difficulty.

  5. We departed on time.

  6. The flight attendants were polite.

  7. The information is private.

  8. The bus transported us.

  9. The company employs workers.

  10. Nature is real.


Exercise 4. Complete the sentences with nouns derived from the words in capitals.


1. Nobody knows why this regulation had to be introduced. There is no ………………….. for it.

2. Dr Novák, by his own ……………………, lacks experience of chairing a session at an international conference.

3. The …………………… of this plan will have serious ………………. .

4. The…………….. found a lot of …………….. in John´s paper.

5. We apologize for the …………………. of the meeting.

6. I have not received confirmation of the ………………….. of my paper.

7. If you want to teach a technical subject, you need not only a good technical education but also a teaching ………………… .

8. He believes that our …………………………………. about the cost of the equipment are wrong.

9. The project is nearing ………………….. .

10. Any signal originating from a source other than the wanted transmitter, e.g. atmospherics or unwanted stations is referred to as …………... .


JUSTIFY

ADMIT
FAIL

IMPLY

REVIEW INACCURATE CANCEL

ACCEPT

QUALIFY
ASSUME
COMPLETE

DISTURB


Складені іменники утворюються шляхом поєднання двох слів (іноді з прийменником між ними), які складають одне поняття: stepfather - вітчим, weatherman – синоптик, parents-in-law – батьки чоловіка або дружини, breadwinner - годівник.
Exercise 5. Match the following parts of compound nouns and then fill in the blanks in the sentences using the most appropriate compound.

noun and noun

1 suit a Food

2 telephone b Card

3 zebra c Case

4fire d Writer

5dish e alarm

6type f opener

7credit g brigade

8burglar h washer

9can I crossing

10junk j number

adjective and noun

1 fast a heating

2 remote b fries

3 social c food

4 high d control

5 central e cleaner's

6 common f rights

7 French g worker

8 dry h languages

9 human I school

10 modern j sense



1 They should put a............................. outside the school so that children don't get run over.

2 It's freezing in here - why don't you get............................... installed?

3 When I don't have time to cook I send the kids out to get some ............................... .

4 Is the................................ you get from your parents enough for your needs?

5 Can you send the................................ quickly - the house next door is on fire.

6 When you leave primary school and get to ............................. , lessons get much more difficult.

7 He'll never think of such a simple solution because he hasn't got any ................................

8 Who's got the......................... for the TV? I'm bored with this programme.

9 Could you get my suit from the ........................... for me on your way home?

10 After the last break-in, they decided to get a ............................ installed.
Exercise 6. Complete the phrases in (i) with a word from (ii) and then use them in the sentences below. To help you, the meaning of the phrase is given in brackets.

(i) (ii)


day-to man/woman-in-the- once-in-a-

down-to- ­ middle-of-the- ­round-the-

larger-than­ step-by-


earth life lifetime street road clock

step day


1 Although the Managing Director of Transcom was involved in major decisions, she left the .... day-to-day..... running of the company to her staff. (routine)

2 The Party will never regain power unless it can persuade …………voters that it has got rid itself of corruption. (not politically extreme)

3 Since the attempt to assassinate him last year, the Defence Minister has been given ......................... protection by the police. (all day and all night)

4 The bookcase came with simple, instructions on how to assemble it. (progressing from one stage to the next)

5 When the comet passes close to Earth next week, scientists will have a………... opportunity to study its effects on our atmosphere. (very rare)

6 Terry has a refreshing, approach to management. He's much less concerned with theory than with getting things done in the most efficient way possible. (practical)

7 The isn't interested in the finer points of the government's tax policy. They just want to know if they are going to take home more or less pay. (ordinary person)

8 Her father was a …… character who was well known throughout the village for his eccentric way of dressing and outspoken views. (more exaggerated than usual)
Exercise 7. Each space in the paragraph below is preceded by an "opportunity for error" (in bold font) in the formation of compounds. If the compound structure is correct, write a C in the space; if it is incorrect, write an I.
UNHAPPY IN NEW YORK


Two and a half.............years ago, my fifty-two year-old.............brother-in-law............., a highly-respected............. (and, might I add, well paid.............) vice president.............of a bank, moved to the forty-third.............floor of a high-rise.............apartment building in New York City. The building was brand-new.............and still about three-quarters.............empty. For us, this was unheard of.............luxury, and I remember standing in my in-laws'.............living-room............., looking out at all those sky-scrapers.............and down on Central Park under a full-moon.............in a coal-black.............sky, and thinking, "This is it! This is the best the twentieth-century.............has to offer!"
But my sister's-in-law.............reaction was not a happy one. We should've known all-along.............that our little understood.............and long-suffering.............relative would not be overly happy.............in that over-populated.............environment. In fact, her resistance to living there was greater than expected.............. In a matter-of-fact.............moment, and in her usual self-confident.............and thought provoking.............way, she said, "When I'm fifty five.............years of age............., I'll be out of here."

And she was nearly-right............., too, for a year-and-a-half.............later, they'd left behind the rat-race.............pace and helter skelter.............lifestyle.............of Manhattan's upper-west-side.............and moved back to their much-loved.............and happily familiar.............suburban hide-away.............in upstate-New-York............., northeast.............of Albany.
Exercise 8. Study the italicized words and make corrections where necessary.
1. Tom worked for a long time in (a) the parks department, but a few years ago he retrained, and now he's (b) a computers programmer. Of course, what he really wants to be is (c) a films star!

2. I was waiting at (a) the bus stop this morning when a cyclist on her way to the (b) girl school up the road got knocked off her bike. Someone got out of a car without looking and (c) the car's door hit her. She was very lucky not to be badly hurt, although she did have (d) a head cut.

3. I shouldn't be long at (a) the corner shop. I've just got three things on my (b) shopping list ­(c) a milk bottle, (d) a biscuit packet, and (e) some teethpaste. I'll also look for (f) some goat's cheese, but I don't think they'll have any.

4. This a very spacious ware house located in the heart of the industrial area in Kanifing..

5. If you live in a building with an entrance phone system, it's important that you use it properly to keep the property secure.

6. When Sue was cleaning her (a) arms chair, she found a lot of things that had slipped down the back.

7. If you suspect a clog is in the main drained pipe, locate the main clean out. 

8. He was invited to be a better man at the wedding, but he refused.
Exercise 9. First underline the two-word (phrasal) verbs in sentences 1-5, then complete sentences 6-10 with appropriate compound nouns related to these two-word verbs.
1 Dennis tried to cover up the fact that he had gambled and lost most of his money.

2 It is reported that cholera has broken out in the refugee camp.

3 I'm flying to Sydney, but I'm stopping over in Singapore for a few days on the way.

4 On the first Friday of each month, a few of us get together and play ten-pin bowling.

5 We set out from the camp early in the morning, hoping to reach the summit by midday.

6 The minister was taken ill in Iceland during a short on his way back to Canada.

7 We didn't have a big party for Jane's 50th birthday, just a family ………....

8 Allegations of a of a major leak of radioactive waste from the nuclear power plant have been strongly denied by the Energy Ministry.

9 Only two years ago there was a serious of malaria in the town.

10 Even at the…………….. of the expedition, they knew they had little chance of crossing the desert.
Exercise 10. Fill in the right form of the words in brackets.


  1. The water-fuelled car was his greatest .......... . (ACHIEVE)

  2. Thanks to mobile phones, the emergency services come to people's .......... much faster these days. (ASSIST)

  3. My first .......... for a holiday would be Tokio. (CHOOSE)

  4. The .......... to the energy crisis is not nuclear, because of the enormous hidden costs, the toxic waste and simply because it is not renewable. (SOLVE)

  5. The ..........looked dark and there were hardly any other guests. (ENTER)

  6. A .......... for children has just opened near my workplace. ( NURSE )

  7. Why do our ……. have difficulties in forecasting? (WEATHER+MAN)

  8. He is said to be a ……., but I have never heard that he was married. (DIVORCE)

  9. Mr. Chester works as a medical …….. . He gives professional advice to those suffering form heart diseases. (CONSULT)

  10. It is an unconscious, universal ……., not the personal, conscious and rational ……. of the superior few. (SENSE)


Інколи іменники мають таку саму форму, як і дієслова, наприклад, charge, comment, contract, copy, debate, design, hope, look, plan, reply, study.

Вони можуть відрізнятися від дієслів:

a) наголосом: іменники мають наголошений перший склад

contrast, decrease, export, import, increase, present, progress, record, research, transfer

b) вимовою:

іменник use [ju:s] дієслово use [ju:z]

c) написанням:

іменник practice дієслово practise (BE)

але: practice practice (AE)

d) і написанням і вимовою:

іменник advice [s] дієслово advise [z]

device [s] devise [z]
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